The retina is the inside back wall of the eye where light is focused onto it by the cornea and lens in front of the retina. The retina then transmits an electrochemical signal created by this light to the brain via the optic nerve. This is how the perception of sight is performed. The central retina is called the macula. The macula is in charge of your central vision for tasks such as reading letters and recognizing faces. The rest of the peripheral retina is in charge of your peripheral or side vision.